Things that Makrooh (Detestable/Hateful) the Fast
1. The fast becomes makrooh by lying, back-biting, swearing or by ill-treating others.
2. It is also Makrooh to taste anything or to chew anything and spit it out.
3. It is makrooh to kiss, embrace or commit acts to arouse passion.
4. To gargle excessively and to take water excessively through nose in large quantities is Makrooh.
Things That Make The Fast Null And Void
1. Eating, drinking, or sexual intercourse - if committed while aware that one is fasting - makes fast void.
2. Smoking in any form will nullify the fast.
3. Anything even smaller than a gram that was stuck in the teeth nullifies the fast if it is swallowed.
4. Medical drops or oil inserted in the nose or ears nullifies the fast.
5. If one swallows spit by licking it off after it leaves the mouth, it nullifies the fast. If one spews while aware that he is fasting, the fast is null and void. This is not the case if he spews less than a mouthful.
Things That Do Not Nullify The Fast
1. Insects, smoke dust that goes into the throat uncontrollably.
2. Applying surma (collyrium) to eyes.
3. Applying oil to hair will not nullify the fast.
4. While sleeping, if one experiences a seminal discharge, this does not nullify the fast.
5. If water passes into the ears it does not break the fast.
Expliation (Kaffara) For Breaking The Fast.
The Kaffara for deliberately breaking fast can avail any of below provision.
1. Fast for 60 consecutive days
2. Feed 60 poor people if ill-health forbids the former. One can feed 60 people 2 proper meals, or One can feed one poor person 2 proper meals for 60 days. or One can give the poor 1 Kg and 700g of wheat or cash to its value per person to 60 poor people.
3. Buy and set free a slave
If a person is unable to fast due to old age or some serious illness will increase due to fasting, then that person will have to give 'Fidya' for every fast. The amount that should be given for Fidya is:
1. One kg and 700g of wheat or cash to its value.
2. Two meals or cash to its value.
Any of the above should be given to a poor person. Please note the amount stated above is per fast. So if a person has missed 30 fast, then any one above provisions that a person wishes to give, must be multiplied by 30.